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1
Acadian Exiles in France
Acadian Exiles in France
In 1755, prior to the Seven Years' War or French and Indian War of 1756-1763, the British began deporting the French colonists from Acadia. The Acadians who were residents in British territory were sent to the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard in North America. The colonies were not happy to receive sick, destitute, French-speaking Catholics. The Virginia colony refused to allow the exiles to even leave the ships. This group was eventually sent to England where they remained as prisoners of war for the duration of the war. They were mainly kept at Liverpool, Southampton and Bristol. As the war progressed, about 3,500 Acadians who were captured in areas that were considered to be French territories in Canada were deported directly to France. At the end of the war, about 1,500 Acadians left England and returned to France.
The trials and tribulations of the Acadians in France make a complicated story. The French government attempted to accommodate the refugees, even paying a small stipend as welfare to help support them. Several attempts were made to settle the Acadians in various areas.
Eventually, after years of negotiations between the Acadians, the French government and the Spanish government, Acadians were offered the option of going to Louisiana. Spain was in control of Louisiana and wanted more colonists - especially colonists who hated the British! A large group of Acadians had already made their way to Louisiana and were eager to be reunited with other family members. About 1600 of the Acadian refugees in France opted to go to Louisiana at the expense of the Spanish government in 1785.

 
 
2
Carignan Soldiers
Carignan Soldiers
In 1665 King Louis XIV ordered the Carignan-Salieres Regiment to Canada to help save the Royal Colony from destruction at the hands of the Iroquois Indians. Between June and September 1665, some twenty-four companies of 1200 soldiers and their officers of the Carignan-Salières Regiment arrived in Quebec under the leadership of Lt. General Alexander de Prouville, Sieur de Tracy.

for more information:
https://blog.eogn.com/2015/04/05/carignan-soldiers-or-soldat-carignan/ 
 
3
Coureur de Bois
Coureur de Bois
A coureur de bois was an independent fur trader. He did not work for a licensed company. He traded European goods with native tribes for furs. The coureur usually became fluent in native languages and knowledgeable about native customs and practices.  
 
4
Engagé Ouest
Engagé Ouest
An engagé was a young man hired with a contract, usually for three years. He might work as a domestic helper, as a fur trader or as a helper on an expedition. The engages were required to go anywhere or do anything their masters told them during their indentureship.  
 
5
Filles à Marier
Filles à Marier
The Filles à Marier, or marriageable girls, were a group of 262 single women who arrived in Quebec from 1634 to 1662. These women came for the purpose of marrying and settling in New France. They were recruited and supported by merchants and seigneurs who were expected to provide colonists for New France. Some were also recruited by religious groups. Generally, they were poor or orphans and had no better prospects for their future in France. They did not receive financial assistance from the French government as did the later Filles du Roi.

For more information on the Filles à Marier:

Before the King's Daughters; The Filles à Marier, 1634-1662
by Peter J. Gagné

This website is in French, but has a list of the Filles, including their husbands and families:
https://habitantheritage.org/cpage.php?pt=19 
 
6
Filles du Roi
Filles du Roi
In the seventeenth century, King Louis XIV was anxious to populate New France. To provide wives for the settlers in the new world, the French government sent approximately 768 young women to Quebec. They were known as Filles du Roi or "daughter of the king." These girls received free passage to Quebec, a dowry and a cash bonus when they married.

For more information on the King's Daughters:

La Société des Filles du Roi et Soldats du Carignan
https://fillesduroi.org/index.php

King's Daughters and Founding Mothers: The Filles du Roi, 1663-1673
2 volumes by Peter J. Gagné 
 
7
Métis, Amerindian, Native American
Métis, Amerindian, Native American
Métis is an old French term meaning "mixed." It is used to describe people of mixed native and European heritage. The first Metis in the Acadia area were the children of European fishermen who visited the coast of what is now Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and had children with the native women. Later explorers and fur traders often had relationships with the natives. In some areas, this was encouraged by authorities to help establish a closer relationship with the native peoples. In other areas, it was discouraged. Early colonists often survived only because of their relationship with the local tribes. Many early Acadian families intermarried with the native Mi'kmaq Indians.

 
 
8
The Britannia
The Britannia
On December 12, 1768, thirty-four Acadian exiles and 40 German Catholics chartered a boat to take them from Maryland to New Orleans. The ship was named The Britannia and the crew was British. The boat was not seaworthy and the captain was incompetent.
They set sail on January 5, 1669. The captain missed the mouth of the Mississippi River and finally landed on the Matagorda Peninsula in April. The weary, hungry passengers were rescued by Spanish soldiers and were taken to the Spanish mission, La Bahia, at Goliad. The travelers had to remain at La Bahia until they received permission to leave from the Spanish government at Mexico City. After about four months, they were allowed to leave. They were sent overland with guides to Natchitoches, a journey that took about six weeks. The Spanish governor wanted them to remain as colonists at Natchitoches, but the Acadians wanted to reunite with relatives further east and were finally allowed to move to the Attakapas Post.
The families of Olivier Benoit, Honore Trahan and Antoine Bellard were among the travelers. Included in the German group were Jacob Miller and his wife, Anne Marie Theigen, and Andre Meche, a bachelor.

For more information:

https://tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fto53

Acadians in Maryland
by Gregory A. Wood 
 
9
Voyageurs
Voyageurs
A Voyageur was an expert boatman and river guide employed by a fur trading company to transport furs and trade with the natives. 
 


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